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Antonio Gramsci



Gramsci's Life and Thought

Gramsci's political and social writings occur in two periods, pre-prison (1910-1926) and prison (1929-35).  His pre-prison writings tend to be politically specific, while his prison writings tend to be more historical and theoretical.

For a brief overview of Gramsci's life and thought see:

An Introduction to Gramsci's Life and Thought by Frank Rosengarten.

Chronology 1921-1926, from Selections from Political Writings (1921-1926)

New Addition

Antonio Gramsci: Further Selections from the Prison Notebooks'

Pre-Prison Political Writings 1910-1926


Men or machines? (Avanti!, 24 December)
Newspapers and the Workers  (Avanti!, 22 December 1916)


Notes on The Russian Revolution (Grido del Popolo, 29 April)
The Russian Maximalists (Grido del Popolo, 28 July)
The Revolution Against 'Capital' (Avanti!, 24 December)
Character  (Grido del Popolo, 3 March 1917)


Caporetto and Vittorio Veneto (L'Ordine Nuovo, 28 January)
War is war (L'Ordine Nuovo, 31 January)
Worker“s control (L'Ordine Nuovo, 10 February)
The general confederation of labour (L'Ordine Nuovo, 25 February)
Real dialectics (L'Ordine Nuovo, 3 March)
Officialdom (L'Ordine Nuovo, 4 March)
Unions and councils (L'Ordine Nuovo, 5 March)
Italy and Spain (L'Ordine Nuovo, 11 March)
Socialists and communists (L'Ordine Nuovo, 12 March)
England and Russia (L'Ordine Nuovo, 18 March)
The italian parliament (L'Ordine Nuovo, 24 March)
The Communists and the Elections
The Elections and Freedom
Elemental Forces
The Old Order in Turin
Socialists and Fascists
Reactionary Subversiveness
Leaders and Masses
The "Arditi del Popolo"
The Development of Fascism
Against Terror
The Two Fascisms
The Agrarian Struggle in Italy
Those Mainly Responsible
Parties and Masses
Masses and Leaders
One Year


The "Alleanza del Lavoro"
A Crisis within the Crisis


Editorial: March 1924
Against Pessimism
Gramsci to Togliatti, Scoccimarro, Leonetti, etc. (21 March 1924)
The Programme of L'Ordine Nuovo
Problems of Today and Tomorrow
Gramsci to Zino Zini (2 April 1924)
Gramsci to Togliatti, Scoccimarro, etc. (5 April 1924)
The Como Conference: Resolutions
Gramsci's Intervention at the Como Conference
The Italian Crisis
Democracy and Fascism
The Fall of Fascism


Report to the Central Committee: 6 February 1925
Speech to the Italian parliament, 16 May 1925
Introduction to the First Course of the Party School
The Internal Situation in our Party and the Tasks of the Forthcoming Congress
Elements of the Situation


The Italian situation and the tasks of the PCI (Lyons, January 1926)
The party's first five years (L'Unita, 24 February 1926)
A study of the Italian situation (Report to the 2-3 August 1926 meeting of the Party's Executive Commitee.)
The peasants and the dictatorship of the proletariat (L'Unitą, 17 September 1926)
Once again on the organic capacities of the working class (L'Unitą, 1 October 1926)
We and the Republican Concentration (L'Unitą, 13 October 1926)
Some aspects of the southern question (Unfinished, October 1926)

Prison Notebooks 1929-1935

Contents of Notebooks

Hegel and associationism
Military art and political art
The Intellectuals

The Intellectuals
On Education
The Modern Prince
State and Civil Society
The Study of Philosophy

Structure and Superstructure [i]
Structure and Superstructure [ii]
Structure and Superstructures [iii]
The Concept of ‘Historical Bloc’
Ethico-Political History
Ethico-Political History and Hegemony
Political Ideologies
Validity of Ideologies
Analysis of Situations: Relations of Force
Some Theoretical and Practical Aspects of ‘Economism’ [also in The Modern Prince]
Observations on Certain Aspects of the Structure of Political Parties in Periods of Organic Crisis

War of Position and War of Manoeuvre
War of Position and War of Manoeuvre or Frontal War

Agitation and Propaganda

The Problem of Political Leadership in the Formation and Development of the Modern State in Italy
Rationalization of the Demographic Composition of Europe
Some Aspects of the Sexual Question
Financial Autarky and Industry
‘Animality’ and Industrialism
Rationalization of Production and Work
Taylorism and the Mechanization of the Worker

Philosophy: Some preliminary reference points

Collections of Gramsci’s Writings

Selections from Political Writings (1921-1926)
Selections from the Prison Notebooks
An Antonio Gramsci Reader