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Lenin - On Socialism in One CountryRead or Download the book
Internet is full of - actually over 8 million - writings about "Socialism in one country " being a theory put forth by Joseph Stalin, " being a betrayal of Leninist theory" etc. This is not a coincidence but an inevitable result of ideological struggle between the bourgeoisie, their servile petty bourgeois and Marxism Leninism as the ideology of laboring masses. It is one of the cheap falsification of history, distortion of facts, simply: cheap propaganda directed at average people and petty bourgeois intellectuals in return which makes it possible for the petty bourgeois and the reaction to hide behind "leftist" mask and gives them the opportunity to attack Socialist theories as "critics from the left" without appearing as reactionary.
Their master Trotsky who supplied a vast material to imperialists and anti-communists to fight against communism, also supplied the tactics for it. According to Trotsky, the pioneer of this lie:
"Lenin was only referring to the establishment of a ‘proletarian dictatorship’ in a single country". Trotsky, The Third International
And same Trotsky said :""I remember very well how during the first period, in the Smolny, Lenin repeated time and time again in the Council of People’s Commissars: half a year from now we’ll have socialism and we’ll be the most powerful state on earth… He believed what he said. " Trotsky, On LeninAccording to Trotsky Lenin believed in "Socialism in One country" then it was not a "betrayal to Leninism" on Stalin's part, but it was the continuation of Lenin's belief, and Stalin interpreted Lenin’s views correctly.
Lets go back to history of the theory where "Socialism in one country" has become the theory and practical solution for an isolated revolutionary state.
Lenin’s theory of "socialism in one country" goes back to 1915 where even contrary to the distorted view, Lenin was not "merely referring to socialist revolution in one country," * but also contrary to views of scholars such as Carr, Lenin was referring to the possibility of constructing a socialist economy in a single country. *Carr, A History, and some others,
Lenin, in his article `on the slogan for a US of Europe, clearly states his view which is ignored stubbornly in all discussions. Lenin says:"After expropriating the capitalists and organizing their own socialist production, the victorious proletariat of that country will arise against the rest of the world—the capitalist world—attracting to its cause the oppressed classes of other countries, stirring uprisings in those countries against the capitalists, and in case of need using even armed force against the exploiting classes and their states." Lenin, On the Slogan for a US of Europe,Lenin was clearly stating that for an isolated revolutionary state, it would be feasible to build a socialist economy.
Lenin’s referenced article debating the slogan, published at Sotsial-Demokrat No. 44, August 23, 1915. Lenin was stating that:"It might lead to an incorrect interpretation concerning the impossibility of the victory of socialism in one country and concerning the relationship of such a country with the others. The unevenness of economic and political development is an unconditional law of capitalism. It follows from this that the victory of socialism initially in several or even in one, separately taken capitalist country is possible. Having expropriated the capitalists and having organised socialist production at home, the victorious proletariat of this country would rise against the remaining capitalist world… in case of need even coming out with military force against the exploiting classes and their states… The free unification of nations in socialism is impossible without a more or less prolonged, stubborn struggle of socialist republics against the backward states. " Lenin, "‘On the slogan of the United States of EuropeThrough this article Lenin was suggesting that before engaging in revolutionary world war, the victorious proletariat, the proletarian dictatorship would have to build a socialist economy at home. This suggestion of Lenin clearly derives from the belief that the victory of socialism in one country is possible.
Regarding the same issue, Engels was telling to Kautsky in his 12 September 1882 dated letter:"One thing alone is certain: the victorious proletariat can force no blessings of any kind upon any foreign nation without undermining its own victory by so doing. Which of course by no means excludes defensive wars of various kinds. "Lenin in his article dated September 1916‘The Military Programme of the Proletarian Revolution referring to Engels was stating :""the victory of socialism in one country does not at one stroke eliminate all wars in general. On the contrary, it presupposes wars. The development of capitalism proceeds extremely unevenly in different countries. It cannot be otherwise under commodity production. From this it follows irrefutably that socialism cannot achieve victory simultaneously in all countries. It will achieve victory first in one or several countries, while the others will for some time remain bourgeois or pre-bourgeois. This is bound to create not only friction, but a direct attempt on the part of the bourgeoisie of other countries to crush the socialist state’s victorious proletariat. In such cases, a war on our part would be a legitimate and just war. It would be a war for socialism, for the liberation of other nations from the bourgeoisie. Engels was perfectly right when, in his letter to Kautsky of September 12, 1882, he clearly stated that it was possible for already victorious socialism to wage “defensive wars”. What he had in mind was defense of the victorious proletariat against the bourgeoisie of other countries. " ‘The Military Programme of the Proletarian RevolutionHe continued saying :‘Only after we will have overthrown, finally vanquished and expropriated the bourgeoisie in the whole world, and not only in one country, wars will become impossible.‘The Military Programme of the Proletarian RevolutionOn another article dated November 1916 Lenin says :In July 1916, Lenin said:"Wars are possible between one country in which socialism has been victorious and other, bourgeois or reactionary, countries.’” The “Disarmament” Slogan"An economic revolution will be a stimulus to all peoples to strive for socialism; but at the same time (counter) revolutions—against the socialist state—and wars are possible." Lenin, The Discussion On Self-Determination Summed UpAs it is indisputably shown from the above quotations, the concept of "socialism in one country" is not a theory put forward by Stalin, but it is a Leninist theory.
It is the falsification and cheap propaganda of permanent-counter revolutionaries who choose to wait indefinitely for an "international revolution" to come, yet at the same time attack those who fight for revolution.
In 1918 Lenin was mentioning this type of bourgeois servile:“…when we are told that the victory of socialism is possible only on a world scale, we regard this merely as an attempt, a particularly hopeless attempt, on the part of the bourgeoisie and its voluntary and involuntary supporters to distort the irrefutable truth.” Lenin, “Speech to the Third All-Russia Congress of Soviets”And same year He mentions the permanent- revolution-wait-ers:“I know that there are, of course, sages who think they are very clever and even call themselves Socialists, who assert that power should not have been seized until the revolution had broken out in all countries. They do not suspect that by speaking in this way they are deserting the revolution and going over to the side of the bourgeoisie. To wait until the toiling classes bring about a revolution on an international scale means that everybody should stand stock-still in expectation. That is nonsense.” Lenin, “Speech delivered at a joint meeting of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee and the Moscow SovietAs the facts come out and their lies are confronted, they choose new tactics, new lies and they create new confusions. They extract quotes for the "impossibility of socialism in one country by confusing socialism- first phase, and communism - second phase, to one of which Lenin responds:""when a learned professor, followed by the philistine..., talks of wild utopias, of the demagogic promises of the Bolsheviks, of the impossibility of “introducing” socialism, it is the higher stage, or phase, of communism he has in mind, which no one has ever promised or even thought to “introduce”, because, generally speaking, it cannot be “introduced”.What is usually called socialism was termed by Marx the “first”, or lower, phase of communist society. Insofar as the means of production becomes common property, the word “communism” is also applicable here, providing we do not forget that this is not complete communism." -higher stage. Lenin State and revolutionLenin in his speech was confirming both what socialism is and the existence of socialism in Russia, in one country."Socialism is the first stage of communism: but it is not worth while arguing about words.....We must save the workers even if they are unable to work. If we keep them alive for the next few years we shall save the country, save society and socialism." Lenin, First All-Russia Congress on Adult EducationJanuary 1918, at the Third All-Union Congress of Soviets, Lenin said that the Soviet republic is a socialist republic:“We never had any illusions on that score, and we know how difficult is the road that leads from capitalism to socialism. But it is our duty to say that our Soviet Republic is a socialist republic because we have taken this road, and our words will not be empty words..” Lenin, Third All-Russia Congress Of Soviets Of Workers’, Soldiers’ And Peasants’ DeputiesAnd a year later in 1919 repeats that :“We have achieved this objective in one country, and this confronts us with a second task. Since Soviet power has been established, since the bourgeoisie has been overthrown in one country, the second task is to wage the struggle on a world scale, on a different plane, the struggle of the proletarian state surrounded by capitalist states." Lenin, “The Achievements and Difficulties of the Soviet Government”In 1922 Lenin says:“Socialism is no longer a matter of the distant future, or an abstract picture, or an icon. We still retain our old bad opinion of icons. We have dragged socialism into everyday life, and here we must find our way. ” Lenin, Speech At A Plenary Session Of The Moscow SovietIn 1923 Lenin responses to the critiques:You say that civilization is necessary for the building of socialism. Very good. But why could we not first create such prerequisites of civilization in our country by the expulsion of the landowners and the Russian capitalists, and then start moving toward socialism? Where, in what books, have you read that such variations of the customary historical sequence of events are impermissible or impossible?” Lenin, “Our Revolution”" Socialism in one country " has been Lenin’s thinking since 1915.
As the truth comes out, some bourgeois revisionists accept the fact that it was Lenin's theory and adapt themselves to, and come up with new claims, one of which is that Lenin’s views lack the coherence, that he contradicts himself by rejecting in one writing and then accepting in another. Aside from being a blatant ignorance of Marxist Dialectics on their part, the claim is related to their tactics in confusing the scientific meaning of socialism and communism where they take the "terms" used by Lenin or Stalin out of context and without any regard to the "two phase of transition" - Lower and higher phase.
Lenin clearly explains the reason of the use of term " Communism": “Insofar as the means of production become common property,” Lenin says, “the word ‘communism’ is also applicable here," but Lenin warns: " provided we do not forget that this is not complete communism.” Lenin, State and Revolution, Presentation of the Question by Marx
Another related lie is presented in various forms - of Lenin's belief that there is no possibility of long-term peaceful coexistence between the single socialist state and the capitalist world, but "Stalin believed that the isolated socialist state could in principle coexist indefinitely with the capitalist states."Since they never read Stalin , they discourage people to read Stalin and encourage them to believe in their lies, we should note what Stalin said on the subject with the quote from Lenin:This is what Lenin says on this score :"We are living not merely in a State but in a system of States, and it is inconceivable that the Soviet Republic should continue to coexist for a long period side by side with imperialist States. Ultimately one or other must conquer. Meanwhile, a number of terrible clashes between the Soviet Republic and the bourgeois States is inevitable. This means that if the proletariat, as the ruling class, wants to and will rule, it must prove this also by military organization." (Collected Works, Vol. 24. P. 122.)And further :
"We are surrounded by people, classes and governments which openly express their hatred for us. We must remember that we are at all times but a hair's breadth from invasion." (Collected Works, Vol. 27. P. 117.)Indeed, it would be ridiculous and stupid to close our eyes to the capitalist encirclement and to think that our external enemies, the fascists, for example, will not, if the opportunity arises, make an attempt at a military attack upon the U.S.S.R. Only blind braggarts or masked enemies who desire to lull the vigilance of our people can think like that.No less ridiculous would it be to deny that in the event of the slightest success of military intervention, the interventionists would try to destroy the Soviet system in the districts they occupied and restore the bourgeois system.`` Stalin, On the Final Victory of Socialism in the U.S.S.R.Struggle against capitalism at the same time is an ideological struggle. That is why, it is expected that those who owns the means of production, owning at the same time the means of mental production will do anything in their power, use every means and methods in this ideological war. They will bury the facts under millions of garbage in internet , on the shelves of libraries, they will prepare a list of `reactionary` data disguised in left phrases for the university students for their thesis in related subject, they will pay and award those academicians who can "rewrite the history" and "falsify, revise " the theories serving best to their interests. The truth is stubborn.. Stalin had said:"I know that after my death a pile of rubbish will be heaped on my grave, but the wind of History will sooner or later sweep it away without mercy." Quoted in Felix Chuev, Molotov Remembers
E.AApril 16, 2020
Table of Contents in PDF
Trotsky, An answer to Stalinist Critics 14
Trotsky, Forming The Government 24
Lenin, On the Slogan for a US of Europe 42
Engels to Kautsky 48
Lenin, The Military Programme of the Proletarian Revolution 50
Lenin, The “Disarmament” Slogan 55
Lenin, Report on the Activities of Th CPC 58
Lenin, Report on Foreign Policy 84
Lenin, State and revolution 109
Lenin, First All-Russia Congress on Adult Education 120
Lenin, The Achievements and Difficulties of the Soviet Government 140
Lenin, Speech At A Plenary Session Of The Moscow Soviet 187
Stalin, On the Final Victory of Socialism in the U.S.S.R. 197