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Marx's Grundrisse: Footnotes

<"29">29. Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations, Vol. II, p. 10.

<"30">30. Hodgskin, Popular Political Economy, p. 140.

<"31">31. T. R. Malthus, An Inquiry into the Nature and Progress of Rent, London, 1815, p. 7.

<"32">32. Ricardo, On the Principles of Political Economy, p. 493.

<"33">33. Recherches sur la nature et les causes de la richesse des nations; traduction nouvelle, avec des notes et observations; par Germain Garnier, Paris, 1802, 2 volumes. The French edition of Adam Smith, excerpted by Marx already in 1844; see MEGA. 1/3, pp. 457-93.

<"34">34. Genesis iii, 19.

<"35">35. grisette: young shop-girl.

<"36">36. Fourier, Le Nouveau Monde industriel et sociétaire, in OEuvres complets, Paris, 1848, Vol. VI, pp. 245-52.

<"pagenote612">* Proudhon's lack of understanding of this matter is evident from his axiom that every labour leaves a surplus. [editor's note: see Bastiat et Proudhon, Gratuité du crédit, p. 200.] What he denies for capital, he transforms into a natural property of labour. The point is, rather, that the labour time necessary to meet absolute needs leaves free time (different at the different stages of the development of the productive forces), and that therefore a surplus product can be created if surplus labour is worked. The aim is to suspend the relation itself, so that the surplus product itself appears as necessary. Ultimately, material production leaves everyone surplus time for other activity. There is no longer anything mystical in this. Originally, the free gift of nature abundant, or at least merely to be appropriated. From the outset, naturally arisen association (family) and the division of labour and cooperation corresponding to it. For needs are themselves scant at the beginning. They too develop only with the forces of production.

<"37">37. Nassau Senior, Principes fondamentaux, pp. 309-35.

<"39">39. Malthus, Definitions in Political Economy, pp. 69-70.

<"40">40. Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations, Vol. II, Bk II, Ch. 2, pp. 270-77.

<"pagenote630">* 'The productivity of capital as capital is not the productive force which increases use values; but rather its capacity to create value; the degree to which it produces value.

<"41">41. 'Subjects of exchange' should clearly read 'objects of exchange'. [MELI note]

<"pagenote632">* It is altogether necessary to make this clear; because the distribution of the surplus value among the capitals, the calculation of the total surplus value among the individual capitals -- this secondary economic operation -- gives rise to phenomena which are confused, in the ordinary economics books, with the primary ones.

<"44">44. Bastiat and Proudhon, Gratuité du crédit, p. 200.

<"45">45. ibid., p. 288.

<"46">46. A. Anderson (Scottish chemical manufacturer, not to be confused with James Anderson, Scottish farmer, and eighteenth-century originator of the theory of ground rent), The Recent Commercial Distress; or, the Panic, Analysed: Showing the Cause and Cure, London, 1847.

<"47">47. Say, Traité d'économie politique, Vol. II, p. 430.

<"48">48. Ramsay, An Essay on the Distribution of Wealth.

<"pagenote644">* Otherwise it could also be assumed, alternatively, that, if the production process is continuous, the obtained surplus is re-transformed into capital every 3 months.

<"49">49. Ricardo, On the Principles of Political Economy, pp. 26-7. The passage is sometimes compressed, sometimes expanded, in the quoting, in line with Marx's usual method in the notebooks.

<"50">50. Petty, Political Arithmetic, pp. 178-9.

<"51">51. 'Assert' is a suggested emendation for 'overlook' as found in the original text.

<"52">52. Sismondi, Nouveaux Principes d'économie politique, Vol. I, pp. 94-8.

<"53">53. Cherbuliez, Richesse ou pauvreté, pp. 16-19.

<"54">54. The number 29 refers to Notebook V, p. 29. See Storch, Cours d'économie politique, Vol. I, pp. 411-12.

<"55">55. Storch, Cours d'économie politique, Vol. I, p. 246. The number 26a refers to an excerpt-book.

<"56">56. Storch, Considérations sur la nature du revenu national, Paris, 1824.