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Socialism Means ProsperityResults of the Fulfillment of the State Plan for the Development of the National Economy of the U.S.S.R.
Report by the Central Statistical Administration of the U.S.S.R. Council of Ministers
PUBLISHED BY SOVIET NEWS
London, February,1951"lt would be absurd to think that Socialism can be built on the basis of poverty and privation, on the basis of reducing individual requirements and the standard of living to the level of the poor, who, moreover, refuse to remain poor any longer and are pushing their way up ward to prosperity. Who wants this sort of Socialism, so called? This would not be Socialism, but a carica ture of Socialism. Socialism can only be built up on the basis of a rapid growth of the productive forces of society; on the basis of an abundance of products and goods; on the basis of the prosperity of the working people, and on the basis of the rapid growtl1 of culture. ""
STALIN. Report to Seventeenth Congress, Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolsheviks).
Report by the Central Statistical Administration of the U.S.S.R. Council of Ministers
THE development of industry, agriculture and transport , ca pit a l construction , the expansion of trade and improvement in the material and cultural standards of the people in 1950 are characterised by the following data:
FULFILMENT OF THE INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION PLAN
THE 1950 plan for gross output of industry was fulfilled as a whole by 102 percent. The 1950 plan for gross output of ind ustry was f ulfilled by the various Ministries as follows :Percentage of the Fulfilment of the Annual Plan for 1950Ministry of Ferrous Metallurgical Industry. 101Ministry of Non-Ferrous Metallurgical Industry .. .. 100.3Ministry of Coal Industry .. .. .. .. .. 100.8Ministry of Oil Industry. .. .. 101Ministry of Electric Power Stations .. .. . . . . 102Ministry of Chemical Industry .. .. .. . . . . 105Ministry of Electrical Industry. .. .. 106Ministry of Communications Equipment Industry ... 103Ministry of Heavy Engineering Industry .. . . 104Ministry of Motor and Tractor Industry .. .. .. 102Ministry of Machine Tool Industry. 102Ministry of Machine and Instrument-making Industry .. 100.6Ministry of Building and Road Construction Machinery Industry .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 103Ministry of Transport Machinery Industry .. .. .. 102Ministry of Agricultural Machinery Industry .. .. .. 100.1Ministry of Building Materials Industry of the U.S.S.R. .. 104Ministry of Timber and Paper Industry of the U.S.S.R. .. 93Ministry of Light Industry of the U.S.S.R. .. .. .. 104Ministry of Fishing Industry of the U.S.S.R. 96Ministry of Meat and Dairy Industry of the U.S.S.R. .. 102Ministry of Food Industry of the U.S.S.R. .. .. 103Ministry of Cotton Cultivation of the U.S.S.R. 106Industrial enterprises of the Ministry of Transport of the U.S.S.R. .. 98Industrial enterprises of the Ministry of Health of the U.S.S.R.104Industrial enterprises of the Ministry of Cinematography of the U.S.S.R.110Local industries and local fuel industry of the Union Republics.106Industrial co-operatives. 100.8
In 1950 there was produced in excess of the annual plan a considerable amount' of coal, oil, petrol, paraffiu, diesel fuel, electric power, transformer, dynamo and sheet construction steel, rolled wheels, iron tubing, iron ore, non-ferrous metals, locomobiles, diesels, power transformers, motor lorries and cars, ball-bearings, automatic cranes, big scraper-excavators, large and heavy machine tools, tree-planting machinery, flax combines, rubber, caustic soda, dyes and other chemicals, cement, window glass, soft roofing materials, gramophones, sewing machines , clocks and watches, cameras, cotton fibre, cotton, linen, woollen and silk textiles, artificial silk, staple fibre, rubber footwear, meat, sausage meat, sugar, confectionery, tinned goods, tea, alcohol, cigarettes, soap, champagne, and many other industrial products.
Whilst fulfilling and over-fulfilling the year's plan for gross output and the output of the majority of the most important types of industrial production in kind, some Ministries did not fulfil the plan for certain types of production.
In 1950 there was an improvement in the quality, and extension in the range, of industrial output. · There was a con siderable expansion in the output of industrial goods and food commodities in public demand. However, not all branches of industry completely fulfilled the plan stipulated by the State for the variety and quality of industrial output. Thus, for example, the Ministry of Ferrous Metallurgical Industry did not fulfil the plan as regards certain types of the range of ferrous metals, the Ministry of Machine and Instrument-making Industry did not fulfil the plan for medium hydro-turbines and calculating machines, the Ministry of Agricultural Machinery ln,dustr.y did not fulfil the plan for the production of certain agricultural machines, the Ministry of Timber and Paper Industry of the
U.S.S.R. did not fulfil the plan for the haulage of the main types of commercial timber, and the Ministry of Light Industry of the U.S.S.R. did no.t fulfil the plan for the improved variety of hosiery; a number of enterprises of local industry and the industrial co-operatives did not fulfil their plans for improving the quality and range of industrial output.
GROWTH OF INDUSTRIAL OUTPUT
THE output of the most important types of industrial pro duction showed the following changes in 1950 as compared with 1949:
Gross output for the entire industry of the U.S.S.R. increased in 1950, in comparison with 1949, by 23 per cent.
In the past year, in accordance with the State Plan for sup plies, the national economy received considerably more raw materials, basic materials, fuel, electric power and electrical equipment than in 1949.In 1950 the further improvement in the use of equipment in industry continued. At enterprises of the Ministry of Ferrous Metallurgical Industry there was an increase in the production of steel per square metre' of area of open-hearth furnace. At enterprises of the oil industry there was an increase in the percentage of light fractions of oil products from crude oils . In the enterprises of the Ministry of Coal Industry there was an increase in the past year in the use of coal combines and an increase in their productivity. At the enterprises of the Ministry of Electric Power Stations there was a reduction in the consump tion of fiiel for the production of electricity. There was an improvement in the utilisation of capacity in the production of caustic soda and sulphuric acid at the enterprises of the Ministr y of Chemical Industry and in the use of equipment in the cement and brick industries of the Ministry of Building Materials Industry of the U.S.S.R. 1 One square metre=I0.764 square feet.
During 1950 raw materials, fuel and electrical power were more economically expended, there was a reduction in losses and waste from materials, an increase in productivity of labour and an acceleration in the turnover of circulating capital. The plan for the reduction in production costs set for the year 1950 was fulfilled. In 1950 the cost of industrial production, in com parable prices, was reduced in comparison with 1949 by 6 per cent.
On the basis of achievements scored in the ,development of industry and transport, increased productivity of labour and redticed production costs in 1949, the Government carried out, as from January I, 1950, a reduction in wholesale prices of metals, machinery and equipment, chemicals, building materials, timber materials and paper, and also a reduction in the charges for electric power and railway freight transport. A further reduction in the cost of production made it possible to carry out, for the purpose of reducing the cost of building work, a further reduction from July 1, 1950, of the wholesale prices of materials, equipment and transport charges.
INTRODUCTION OF NEW EQUIPMENT IN THE NATIONAL ECONOMY
IN 1950, in accordance with the plan, in all branches of the national economy extensive work was carried out to introduce new equipment, resulting in outstanding successes in the further technical re-equipment of the national economy, the raising of the level of mechanising labour-consuming and arduous work and an intensification of production processes.To satisfy the requirements of the most important branches of the national economy, Soviet industry produced in 1950 more than 400 new types and makes of highly productive. machinery and mechanisms.For the construction of the great hydro-electric power stations and large canals and for the further mechanisation of the coal and mineral-extracting industries, highly productive, powerful shovel dredgers and chain and bucket excavators and scrapers and new types of coal combine machines were produced, and the production of new coal and ore loading machines was mastered.The machine tool industry mastered the production of more than 100 new types of highly productive metal-cutting lathes and forge presses. New types of instruments and abrasiv:es were produced which ensured an increase in productivity and an improvement in the quality of processing.
In the motor industry mass production of new and comfort able six-seater "ZIM" motor-cars and new "ZIS-155" buses has been mastered.
The production of a considerable quantity of new makes of electrical machinery - radio and telephone communications apparatus and electric vacuum articles - has also been mastered.New agricultural machines were produced, making possible a still greater increase in the mechanisation of the work of sowing and harvesting grain and industrial and vegetable crops, including new, highly productive grain combines and triple-row beet-harvesting combines. Machines for harvesting sunflower, maize, rice and soya were improved. The production of a series of suspension agricultural machines and implements, of flax-scutching and tow-preparing machinery, and also machinery for hydro-ameliorative works, was mastered. There was an increase in the output of cotton-picking machines, and a considerable improvement in the tractor-drawn ploughs produced by industry. '
New types of equipment for the oil, chemical, printing, light, food and other industries, for building and transport, were pro· duced.New types of instruments and apparatus for automatic control and th e regulation of production processes and for conduct ing scientific research work were mastered .In 1950 considerable work was carried out to mechanise labour-consuming and arduous processes.
ln the coal industry the mechanisation of the processes of under-cu tting and hewing, coal conveying and underground transport was completed. The volume of mechanised coal load ing has increased 2.5 times compared with 1949. However, the process of coal loading is still insufficiently mechanised.In the timber industry the volume of mechanised work in enterprises of the Ministry of Timber and Paper Industry of theU.S.S.R. increased more than one and a half times for the timber logging and 2.3 times for timber haulage, compared with 1949. In spite of the increase in the volume of mechanised work, the assignment stipulated by the plan for the mechanisation of the chief processes in the Iumbering work of enterprises of the Ministry of Timber and Paper Industry of the U.S.S.R. was not fulfilled.There was an increase in mechanisation in earth excavation and concrete-laying for building and in loading and unload ing work in railway and water transport.
During 1950 the further introduction and development of new highly productive technological processes continued.
In the iron and steel industry there was a further improve ment in the technology of pig iron and steel production and in the development of. the production of special sections and types of rolled steel required for new types of machines and instru ments. The use of special sections of rolled steel makes it possible to reduce consumption of metal in engineering and construction.
In the non-ferrous metallurgical industry improved equip ment and new production technology was introduced for the increased extraction of non-ferrous and rare metals.In the mineral and coal industries more advanced methods were employed for the extraction and refining of ores and coal, using machines of up-to-date types. In the coal industry work was carried out in connection with remote and automatic control of underground machinery.The chemical industry has organ1sed the production of granulated mineral fertilisers and also considerably expanded the output of new, highly effective toxic chemicals for com bating agricultural pests. The production of new types of synthetic chemicals has been mastered.
In the engineering industry there was a further development and application of new technological processes in casting and in forge-press production, in metal working, heat treatment and in welding. In 1950 high-speed methods of using metai-<:utting lathes were introduced on twice as many machines as in 1949.In 1950 in the engineering industry work was carried out on the further bringing into production automatic and conveyor lines for the processing of parts and the assembly of units and machines, of various automatic and semi-automatic machines; the use of instruments to control the progress of technolog ical processes was considerably extended.In the iron and steel in dustry the use of automatic devices to control the progress of heat processes in blast and open hearth furnaces has· been extended.
At power stations work has been carried out for the extension of the application of automatic control of the equipment of thermal and hydro-electric power stations, and also the introduc tion of equipment working under high pressure.
In light industry new highly productive machinery and auto matic weaving looms have been introduced, and there has been an extension of the use of fast dyes and 6f new finishing methods which improve the quality of consumer goods.During 1950 there was an increase in the number of inven tions and rationalisation proposals from workers, engineers and technical workers , which aimed at improving and thoroughly perfecting production processes. More than 600,000 inventions and rationalisation proposals were introduced in 1950 in indus trial enterprises alone.
Side by side with the successes achieved in 1950 in the development and introduction of new technique, there was a lag in the fulfilment of the tasks set for the complex mechanisa tion of certain coal mines, ore mines and lumber enterprises, and also a lag in the fulfilment of the tasks set for the mechanisation of construction works and in mastering the pro duction of certain new types of equipment.
IN 1950 more successes were achieved in the further advance of Socialist agriculture, the development of socialised animal husbandry on collective and State farms and in the organisational and economic strengthening of the collective farms.
According to data of the chief harvest assessment inspectorate of the Council of Ministers of the U.S.S.R., a good harvest of grain crops, cotton and sugar beet, and also a good and satis factory yield of other industrial crops, potatoes and vegetables, was obta ined in 1950.
The gross harvest of grain crops in 1950 amounted to 7,600 million poods.1 The harvest assignment for grain crops estab lished by the Fiv -Year Plan for the year 1950 was overfulfilled.
The gross harvest of cotton in 1950 amounted to 3,750,000 tons,2 and exceeded the target set by the Five-Year Plan for the year 1950 by 650,000 tons.
The gross harvest of sugar beet in 1950 exceeded the 1949 harvest by 1,200,000 tons.
The total area sown to all crops in 1950 increased, com pared with 1949, by 6.6 million hectares,S including: wheat by 1.7 million hectares and cotton by more than half a million hectares. There was a considerable increase in the area sown to fodder crops.
The work on the. sowing of winter crops for the 1951 har vest was successfully completed. The State plan for winter crop sowing was fulfilled. Autumn ploughing in 1950 for the sowing of 1951 spring crops was carried out more intensively and by an earlier date than in 1949.
During the past year there was a further increase and strengthening of the material and technical base of agriculture.
Agriculture in 11 950 received more than 180,000 tractors in terms of 15 h.p. units, 46,000 combine-harvesters, of which 23,000 were self-pro pelled, 82,000 lorries and more than 1,700,000 trailer implements and other agricultural machinery
1 One lood = 36.113 lb.
2 "'l'ons" are metric tons. One metric ton = 2,204.6 lb.
3 One hectare = 2.47 acres.
The increase in the technical equipment of agriculture in 1950 made it possible to raise considerably the level of mechanisation of agricultural work. The machine and tractor stations in 1950 carried out 15 per cent more agricultural work on collective farms than in 1949. There was a considerable improvement in the employment of the total fleet of tractors and combine harvesters. More than 90 per cent of all ploughing and fallow ploughing on collective farms in 1950 was carried out by tractor haulage. Half of all the area sown to grain crops on collective farms was harvested by means of harvester-combines. Com pared with 1949 there was an increase in supplies to agriculture of mineral fertilisers and fuel.
Important successes were achieved in the development of socialised collective farm and State farm animal husbandry.
In 1950 the head of the sociaHy-owned livestock on collective farms, according to preliminary data, increased as follows: cattle by 10 per cent (including cows 20 per cent), pigs 28 per cent, sheep and goats 13 per cent, and horses 15 per cent. The head of poultry increased on the collective farms by 44 per cent.
The head of livestock on the State farms of the Ministry of State Farms of the U.S.S.R. .increased in 1950 as follows: cattle 11 per cent (including cows 12 per cent); pigs 15 per cent;. sheep and goats 10 per cent; horses 14 per cent.
The total head of livestock for all categories of farms - col lective farms, State farms, owned by collective farmers and workers and office employees - amounted by the end of 1950 to the following: cattle 57,200,000 (including 24,200,000 cows); 24,100,000 pigs; 99,000,000 sheep and goats; and 13,700,000 horses.
Fulfilling the plan adopted in 1948 for the planting of forest shelter-belts, the collective farms, forestry farms, shelter-belt stations and State farms in the steppe and forest-steppe areas of the European part of the U.S.S.R. carried out a total plant ing and sowing of shelter-belt trees on an area of 1,350,000 hectares, of which an area of 760,000 hectares was completed in 1950. The plan for tree planting for the year 1950 was over fulfilled.
GROWTH OF RAILWAY , WATER AND ROAD TRANSPORT
THE 1950 Plan for railway freight turnover was fulfilled 105 per cent.
The general plan for average daily loadings on the railwa ys in 1950 was f ulfilled 103 per cent. The average daily loadings of freight in 1950, compared with 1949, increased 13 per cent. The turnround of goods wagons in 1950, compared with 1949, was speeded up by 8 per cent. However, the rate of wagon t urnrou nd laid down by the State Plan for 1950 was not reached.The consump tion of fue l per ton-kilometre' was reduced on the railways in 1950, compared wit h 1949, by 5 per cent.
The transport of cargo by river transport in 1950 increased, com pared with 1949, by 16 per cent. However, the year's plan for·cargo transport by river was not fulfilled.The plan for seaborne cargo in 1950 was fulfilled I02 per cent. Cargo carried in 1950 by the merchant marine increased, as compar ed with 1949, by 9 per cent.
The freight turnover of road transport in 1950, compared with 1949, increased 18 per cent.
GROWTH OF CAPITAL WORKS IN THE NATIONAL ECONOMY
HE volume of State capital works in 1950 amounted to 123 per cent of th e 1949 volume, including: the construction of electric power stations, 132 per cent; the ferrous and non ferrous metallurgical industries, 116 per cent; the coal and oil jndustries, 115 per 'cent; engineering, 109 per cent; the building materials industry, 116 per cent; light industry _ and the food jndustry, 110 per cent; machine and tractor stations and State farms, 148 per cent; transport, 122 per cent; housing construc tion, l 18 per cent. 1 One ton-kilometre= l. 58 ton-miles.
The Ministries of construction, and the building contracting organisations of the industrial Ministries in 1950 increased the volume of construction and installation work compared with 1949. The Ministry of Construction of Heavy Industry Enter prises increased the-volume of construction and installation work in 1950, compared with 1949, by 16 per cent; the Mi_nistry of Construction of Engineering Enterprises by 9 per cent; the building constructing organisations of the Ministry of Electric Power Stations 31 per cent; the Ministry of Coal Industry by i per cent; the Ministry. of Oil Industry by 19 per cent; the Ministry of Transport by 19 per cent.During 1950 the building and designing organisations of the Minist ries and Departments carried out work to reduce the cost of construction by cutting out superfluous expenditure in de sign and estimates, and also by using highly productive machinery, technological standards and methods of production which reflect the achievements of the advanced enterprises, by money-saving solutions of construction problems, and by cutting down the times required for construction, improving the organisation of building and assembly work, considerably raising the level of mechanisation of all forms of work and wider application of industrial methods of construction.EXPANSION OF TRADE
IN 1950 Soviet trade continued to expand. As a result of the new successes in the fields of industrial and agricultural pro duction in 1949, the growth of Jabour productivity and reduced costs of production, the Government carried out on March l, 1950, the third reduction of retail prices for consumer goods since the abolition of rationing. The latest price reduction led to a still greater strengthening of the Soviet. roub le, an increase in its purchasing power and to a considerable increase in the sale of commodities to the population.
During 1950 sales of goods to the population through the State and co-operative trade network increased, in comparable prices, 30 per cent compared with 1949, the sale of food products increasing 27 per cent and the sale of manufactured goods 35 per cent. The greatest increases were in the sales of the follow ing goods:
There was a considerable increase in 1950, as compared with 1949, in the sales of agricultural products to the population at collective farm mark ets, particularly meat , poultry and eggs. Prices at the collective farm markets in 1950 continued to fall.
INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF MANUAL AND OFFICE WORKERS AND GROWTH OF LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY
THE number of manual and office workers in the national economy of the U.S.S.R. at the end of 1950 amounted to 39,200,000 persons, being 2,000,000 greater than the number at the end of 1949. In industry, agriculture, forestry, building and transport the number of manual and office workers during the year increased by 1,600,000 persons; in educational , scientific re search and medical institutions by 300,000 persons ; in trade , housing and municipal services by 100,000 persons.
In 1950, as in previous years, there was no unemployment in the country.
During the past year a total of 494,000 young skilled workers completed vocational, railway, and mining and factory schools, and started work in industry, building and transport.Individual and group study and education courses in 1950 trained new cadres and raised the qualifications of 7,000,000 manual and office workers.
The productivity of labour of workers in industry in 1950, com pared with 1949, increased by 12 per cent, including: in engineering 19 per cent, in the ferrous and non-ferrous metal lurgical industries 8 per cent, in the coal industry JO per cent, in the oil industry 9 per cent, in the chemical industry 14 per cent.
CULTURAL PROGRESS, HEALTH PROTECTION AND TOWN IMPROVEMENT
THE year 1950 was marked by the further advance of cultural development and a rise in the cultural level of the working population.
At the end of the year, in primary, seven-year and secondary schools, tech.riical schools and other secondary educational establishments there were 37 million receiving education . The number of teachers engaged in these educational institutions reached 1,600,000 and was 80 ,000 greater than in 1949.
In 1950, in 880 higher educational institutions there were 1,247,000 students (including correspondence-course students); compared with 1949 the number of students increased by 115,000 persons.
The total number of specialists who graduated from higher educational establishments and technical schools and engaged in the national economy was 9 per cent greater in 1950 than in 1949.In 1950 more than 21,000 scientific workers were taking post graduate courses in higher educational establishments and scientific institutions, nearly 2,000 more than in 1949.
The print of books published in 1950, as compared with the previous year, increased by 21 per cent.
The number of cinema and mobile cinema installations in creased by over 5,000 in 1950, compared with the previous year. In 1950 the network of hospitals, maternity homes and other medical institutions, and also the network of sanatoria and rest houses, was expanded. The number of beds in hospitals and maternity homes increased by 47,000 compared with 1949. The number of doctors in 1950, compared with 1949, increased 7per cent.
There was an increase during 1950 in the production of medical apparatus, instruments and laboratory equipment. There was a considerable increase in the production of highly efficacious medicines.
ln 1950, as in previous years, considerable work was carried out in the construction of municipal enterprises and the pro· vision of amenities in towns and workers' settlements, construc tio n of water supplies, extending tramway and trolley-bus communications, and also in work for piping gas to flats, planting trees and greenery, paving and asphalting streets and squares of tow ns. laying out parks, squares and boulevards.GROWTH OF NATIONAL INCOME AND INCOME OF THE POPULATION
THE national income of the U.S.S.R. in 1950, compared with 1949, in comparable prices, increased by 21 per cent :
The increase in the national income made it possible considerably to. improve the material position of the workers, peasants and intellectuals and to ensure the further expansion of socialist production in town and countryside.
The rise in the material standards of the population of the U.S.S.R. was expressed in the growth of monetary and real wages of manual and office workers and in the increased incomes of the peasants both from socialised collective-farm economy and from their allotments and individually owned holdings.
As a result of the reducti on of prices of all consumer goods fro m March I, 1950, real wages of manual and office workers rose 15 per cent, and the expenses of peasants in buying reduced price industrial goods fell 16 per cent.
In addition, in 1950, as in previous years, the population received, at State expense, grants and payments under the social insurance system for manual and office workers, pensions from the social welfare funds, maintenance free of charge or at reduced rates at sanatoria, rest homes and children's institutions; grants to mothers of large families and unmarried mothers ; free medical aid; free education, and professional and trade instruc tion; grants for students; and a number of other payments and privileges. Moreover , all 39 million manual workers and office workers received at least a fortnight's holiday with pay at State expense, while workers in a number of trades received still longer holidays. In 1950 these payments and privileges which the popu lation received at the expense of the State amounted to more than 120,000 million roubles.As a result of the reduction in the prices of consumer goods, the increased monetary wages of manual and office workers, the increased incomes of the peasants in money and kind, and the in creased payments and privileges to the population at State expense, the income of manual and office workers and the in comes of peasants in 1950, in comparable prices, increased by 19 per cent, compared with 1949.
(Signed) Central Statistical Administration of the U.S.S.R . Council of Ministers.